Geography and Climate

Ludhiana is located at 30.9°N 75.85°E. It has an average elevation of 244 metres (798 ft). Ludhiana City, to its residents, consists of the Old City and the New City (or the residential and official quarters of the Colonial British encampment, traditionally known as Civil Lines; this is as opposed to the Army Lines, which are no longer extant as the British Cantonment was abandoned in 1845).

                The land dips steeply to the North and the West, where prior to 1785 the river Sutlej used to run: this whole area is now mostly unplanned residential communities, with many polluting industries set up in houses due to lack of enforcement of zoning laws.


                The Old Fort was situated at the banks of the Sutlej (and now houses The College of Textile Engineering) and legend has it that an underground tunnel connects it to the Fort in Phillaur - although why this should be is debatable, as the Sutlej was the traditional dividing line between the two principalities, often occupied by enemy forces (see History section)


                The ground is of yellow sandstone and granite, forming small hillocks, plateaus and dips.
The tree of largest natural extraction was the kikar, or Acacia indica but has been supplanted by the Eucalyptus, transplanted from rural Australia in the late 1960s by the government of Chief Minister Pratap Singh Kairon.
Gulmohars and Jacarandas were planted by the British along the avenues of Civil Lines, as were other flowering trees, while the Old City contains almost no vegetation or parks, except for a few isolated pipal trees, holy to the Hindus, as it is supposed to be the abode of Lord Shiva.

Climate 


Ludhiana features a semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon and winter. Summers, which range from April through June in the city, tends to be very hot and very dry with average highs in May and June hovering around 40 degrees Celsius. The monsoon season which runs from July through September, sees a slight decrease in average temperatures but an increase in humidity. The bulk of the city’s annual precipitation is received during the monsoon season. October and November interestingly enough is dry; more similar to a summer month than a monsoon month, though November is noticeably cooler than a summer month. Average temperatures though tend to decrease during the course of each of these months. December through February, which forms the winter months, is relatively mild with warm days and chilly nights. March is more of a sharp transitional month from winter to summer. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 730 mm of precipitation annually.



Source: Wikipedia and others
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